Macro virus

Viruses are often classified according to the objects they infect. Macro viruses, as the name suggests, are designed to add their code to the macros associated with documents, spreadsheets and other data files. The vast majority of macro viruses were designed to spread on the back of Microsoft Office data files (Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint and Project), although there were a few ‘proof-of-concept’ macro viruses for other formats (Lotus AmiPro, for example).


Malware (short for malicious software) refers to any program that is deliberately created to perform an unauthorized, often harmful, action.

Man-in-the-browser attack

A type of attack when a malicious program gains control over traffic between a user’s computer and the webserver of a website and changes the website’s contents. The malware integrates into the victim’s operating system and installs the browser extension. As the victim starts the browser and uploads the page, the extension checks if its address matches the value on the fraudster’s list of target websites (they are mostly the websites that are anyhow connected with financial transactions). If the… Read Full Article

Man-in-the-middle attack

This is where an attacker re-directs a victim’s web traffic (perhaps by modifying DNS settings or modifying the hosts file on the victim machine) to a spoof web site. The victim believes they are connected to their bank’s web site and the flow of traffic to and from the real bank site remains unchanged, so the victim sees nothing suspicious. However, the traffic is re-directed through the attacker’s site, allowing the attacker to gather any personal data entered by the… Read Full Article

MBR (Master Boot Record)

The MBR is the first sector on a hard disk and contains the partition table, which holds information on the number of partitions, their size and which one is active (i.e. which one contains the operating system used to boot the machine).

Mining (cryptocurrency)

A process of creating new blocks of information about transactions conducted in a cryptocurrency (i.e. bitcoin) and adding them to the incorruptible and continuous digital ledger called ‘blockchain’. Every new block contains the information about the transactions that were conducted from the moment of creating the previous block. The purposes of mining include confirmation and verification of transactions in cryptocurrency units (called “tokens”) and including new tokens into the system (tokens also are the profit of miners). The process is… Read Full Article

Money Mule

A participant of an illegal financial transaction that helps cybercriminals get access to money or goods they have stolen without revealing themselves. Money mules transfer money between different accounts, cash in and buy goods in the interest of the fraudsters. Participation of money mules in the transaction chain is aimed at making it more complicated to detect traces of cybercriminals: the more money mules take part, the more complicated it is. Money mules can be “recruited” via job portals, social… Read Full Article