In the context of computer security, a sandbox provides a tightly-controlled environment in which semi-trusted programs or scripts can be safely run in memory (or with limited access to the local hard disk). The sandbox concept can be implemented in a web browser, to safeguard someone from potentially harmful content, or it can be implemented in an anti-malware program as a method for analyzing programs in order to determine if they are safe or harmful.


This term refers to any scheme to make money illegally – in other words, a swindle. Cyber- scams come in different forms, but one of most common is the phishing scam. Another common form of scam is the 419 scam, where the victim is persuaded to part with money on the fraudulent promise of obtaining a larger sum in the future.


A sinkhole is a computer used by anti-malware researchers to collect information about a botnet. This computer masquerades as one of the C2 (command-and-control) servers in the botnet, so that DNS requests (from compromised computers in the botnet) for this server are re-directed to the sinkhole computer, where they can be analysed by researchers.


A type of fraud when a credit card’s data (banking detail, PIN-code etc.) is swiped by fraudsters with the use of a special small electronic device named skimmer. It can be a thin device made to fit d invisibly inside a cash machine’s card acceptance slot, a micro-camera recording the PIN-code dialing or malware attacking web forms during an online payment.

Social engineering

Social engineering refers to manipulation of human psychology. In the context of computer security, it refers to a non-technical breach of security that relies heavily on human interaction, i.e. tricking people into doing something that jeopardises their security or the security of the organization they work for. Cybercriminals depend heavily on disguising malware and spam messages as legitimate communications, which may even pretend to be offering advice about how to combat cybercrime. The objective is to get the victim to… Read Full Article

Software-Defined Network (SDN)

A technology of the physical separation of the network control plane from the forwarding plane, which allows to centralize traffic management by separating it from all of the devices and transmitting it onto a separate device named the SDN commutator.

Source code

Source code refers to the statements created by a programmer using a text editor. Source code is human-readable, for anyone who understands the conventions used by that programming language (‘C’, ‘C++’, etc.), but can not be executed by a computer’s processor until it has been compiled. The term binary code, by contrast, is applied to the compiled instructions contained within an executable file. Binary code is not human-readable and can only be ‘understood’ by the computer’s processor when the program… Read Full Article


Spam is the name commonly given to unsolicited e-mail. It is effectively unwanted advertising, the e-mail equivalent of physical junk mail delivered through the post or from unsolicited telemarketing calls.


Spear-phishing is a targeted version of phishing. The phishing message is directed to a specific person, in the hope that they will disclose information that allows an attacker to gain an initial foothold within an organisation. Cybercriminals may use data that someone has posted online to add credibility to the message. This may include information posted on a company web site, snippets of information that people disclose in social networks or things they publish in public forums. For example, if… Read Full Article


A type of software, which is secretly installed on a user’s computer to collect their data. Unlike malware, spyware does not harm the operating system or programs and files.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

A technology for establishing a secure data transfer between a web server and a browser. Most commonly used with the hypertext transfer protocol: after getting an SSL certificate the http changes to https.


A practice of concealing secret information within another file or message and transferring it via a hidden channel, so that no one suspects it until the extraction of it at its destination, for instance, when a code with textual information is hidden in a graphic image.