One of the most dangerous types of Trojan. Backdoors provide the author or ‘master’ of the Trojan with remote administration of a victim’s machine. Unlike legitimate remote administration utilities, they install, launch and run invisibly, without the consent or knowledge of the user. Once installed, backdoors can be instructed to send, receive, execute and delete files, harvest confidential data from the computer, log activity on the computer and more.

Banker, Trojan Banker

Banking Trojans steal account data for online banking systems, e-payment systems and plastic card systems from customers of these services and send the data to the author or ‘master’ of the Trojan.

Bashdoor (vulnerability)

Also known as Shellshock. A family of security bugs in the widely used Unix Bash shell, the first of which was disclosed on 24 September 2014. Many Internet-facing services, such as some web server deployments, use Bash to process certain requests, allowing an attacker to cause vulnerable versions of Bash to execute arbitrary commands. This can allow an attacker to gain unauthorized access to a computer system.

Behavioral analysis

This refers to the technique of deciding whether an application is malicious or not, according to what it does. If an application does something that falls outside the range of ‘acceptable’ actions, its operation is restricted.

Binary code

This term is applied to the compiled instructions contained within an executable file. Binary code is not human-readable and can only be understood by the computer’s processor when the program is run. Source code, by contrast, is made up of the statements created by a programmer using a text editor. Source code is human-readable, for anyone who understands the conventions used by that programming language (‘C’, ‘C++’, etc.), but cannot be executed by a computer’s processor until it has been… Read Full Article


Bitcoin is a digital crypto-currency that emerged in 2008 as the brain-child of ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ and was released as open-source software in 2009. Trading occurs on a peer-to-peer basis and is not regulated by a central authority. Instead of having a printed bill or minted coin, Bitcoin values are represented as a cryptographic string of characters. Bitcoin transactions are non-reversible. Each transaction is noted in a digital ledger – a large, distributed database called the ‘block chain’. As the name… Read Full Article


A technology which represents a continuous list of transaction records called blocks that are chain-connected. Each block contains information from the previous one plus new information. The main principle of blockchain is that the block information is confirmed by several participants of the system and can’t be changed. The block information is open but is cryptographically protected with hashing.

Blue screen of death (BSoD)

A name of the message about a Windows system error which occurs after detecting a default code or system file damage, so that the system stops running. When an error occurs, there is a white text on a blue background that appears on a computer screen. The text contains information which helps to identify the error cause.

Bodiless Malware

Malicious software or program code that do not have a file body and are capable of working in the computer’s memory.

Boot disk

A disk containing the system files required to load an operating system. These files may be located on a hard disk or removable media (floppy disk, CD or USB memory storage device).

Boot sector

The boot sector is the area on a hard disk and floppy disks containing instructions that are executed during the boot process, i.e. when the PC starts. Among other things, the boot sector specifies the location of the operating system files. On a hard disk, the boot sector is the first sector(s) on the bootable partition, i.e. the partition containing the system files. On a floppy disk, the boot sector is the first sector on the disk: all floppy disks… Read Full Article


A bootkit is a malicious program designed to load as early as possible in the boot process, in order to control all stages of the operating system start up, modifying system code and drivers before anti-virus and other security components are loaded. The malicious program is loaded from the Master Boot Record (MBR) or boot sector. In effect, a bootkit is a rootkit that loads before the operating system.


A bot is a program that acts as an agent for some other program or person and is used to carry out routine tasks. Their use for malicious purposes includes spam distribution, credentials harvest and the launching of DDoS attacks.


A collection of compromised computers running malicious programs that are controlled remotely by a cybercriminals. Cybercriminals exercise remote control through automated processes (bots) in public IRC channels or web sites (such web sites may either be run directly by the ‘bot herder’, or they may be legitimate web sites that have been subverted for this purpose). Since the whole process occurs without the knowledge or consent of the computer user, botnets are sometimes referred to as zombie networks.

Browser Helper Object

A Browser Helper Object (BHO) is a DLL that loads every time Microsoft Internet Explorer runs. Typically, a BHO is installed by a third party program to enhance the functionality of the web browser (many Internet Explorer plugins, for example, are BHOs). BHOs can be installed silently, or can be installed ‘quietly’ (many users fail to read the small print that comes with the EULA (End User License Agreement) displayed by the freeware program). Also, because they’re programs, they can… Read Full Article

Browser Hijacker

Browser Hijackers modify the user’s web browser settings. This may involve changing the default home page, re-directing searches to unwanted web sites, adding unwanted (sometimes pornographic) bookmarks or generating unwanted pop-up windows.

Browser hijacking

Method that allows cybercriminals to change browser settings, re-direct incorrect or incomplete URLs, or change the default homepage. It may also redirect searches to ‘pay-to-view’ (often pornographic) web sites


This is a method for guessing a password (or the key used to encrypt a message) that involves systematically trying all possible combinations of characters until the correct one is found. This could take a very long time, so one alternative is to use a dictionary attack, although this only works if someone has used an everyday word as a password – rather than using a combination of letters, numbers and non-alpha-numeric characters. One way to reduce the susceptibility to… Read Full Article


BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) refers to the corporate policy of allowing employees to bring personal devices into the organisation and use them to access corporate resources. Typically, BYOD is used to refer to smartphones, but it can also apply to tablets and laptops. This policy is attractive to businesses – especially small- and medium-sized businesses – because it means that staff can ‘hit the ground running’, i.e. be productive as soon as they join the organisation. The potential drawback… Read Full Article